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They both rented houses in the Cossack Garden outside Semipalatinsk. Wrangel remarked that Dostoevsky "looked morose. His sickly, pale face was covered with freckles, and his blond hair was cut short.

He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes. It was as if he were trying to look into my soul and discover what kind of man I was.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky tutored several schoolchildren and came into contact with upper-class families, including that of Lieutenant-Colonel Belikhov, who used to invite him to read passages from newspapers and magazines.

Alexander Isaev took a new post in Kuznetsk , where he died in August Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul. In Dostoevsky sent a letter through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his activity in several utopian circles.

As a result, he obtained the right to publish books and to marry, although he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life.

Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February , even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage.

Their family life was unhappy and she found it difficult to cope with his seizures. Describing their relationship, he wrote: They mostly lived apart.

In London, he met Herzen and visited the Crystal Palace. He recorded his impressions of those trips in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions , in which he criticised capitalism, social modernisation , materialism , Catholicism and Protestantism.

From August to October , Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe. He met his second love, Polina Suslova , in Paris and lost nearly all his money gambling in Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden.

In his wife Maria and brother Mikhail died, and Dostoevsky became the lone parent of his stepson Pasha and the sole supporter of his brother's family.

The failure of Epoch , the magazine he had founded with Mikhail after the suppression of Vremya , worsened his financial situation, although the continued help of his relatives and friends averted bankruptcy.

The first two parts of Crime and Punishment were published in January and February in the periodical The Russian Messenger , [70] attracting at least new subscribers to the magazine.

Dostoevsky returned to Saint Petersburg in mid-September and promised his editor, Fyodor Stellovsky , that he would complete The Gambler , a short novel focused on gambling addiction , by November, although he had not yet begun writing it.

One of Dostoevsky's friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary. Dostoevsky contacted stenographer Pavel Olkhin from Saint Petersburg, who recommended his pupil, the twenty-year-old Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina.

Her shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete The Gambler on 30 October, after 26 days' work. The strangeness of his eyes gave Dostoyevsky some mysterious appearance.

His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy. The 7, rubles he had earned from Crime and Punishment did not cover their debts, forcing Anna to sell her valuables.

On 14 April , they began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the money gained from the sale. They stayed in Berlin and visited the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden , where he sought inspiration for his writing.

They continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt , Darmstadt , Heidelberg and Karlsruhe. They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden , where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table.

In September , Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot , and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January Their first child, Sonya, had been conceived in Baden-Baden , and was born in Geneva on 5 March The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky "wept and sobbed like a woman in despair".

In April , Dostoevsky made a final visit to a gambling hall in Wiesbaden. Anna claimed that he stopped gambling after the birth of their second daughter, but this is a subject of debate.

After hearing news that the socialist revolutionary group "People's Vengeance" had murdered one of its own members, Ivan Ivanov, on 21 November , Dostoevsky began writing Demons.

During the trip, he burnt several manuscripts, including those of The Idiot , because he was concerned about potential problems with customs. The family arrived in Saint Petersburg on 8 July, marking the end of a honeymoon originally planned for three months that had lasted over four years.

Back in Russia in July , the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions.

Their son Fyodor was born on 16 July, and they moved to an apartment near the Institute of Technology soon after.

They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued.

Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments.

Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov.

Around early the family spent several months in Staraya Russa , a town known for its mineral spa.

Dostoevsky's work was delayed when Anna's sister Maria Svatkovskaya died on 1 May , either from typhus or malaria , [86] and Anna developed an abscess on her throat.

The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January by the "Dostoyevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife.

Although they only accepted cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3, copies of Demons.

Anna managed the finances. Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky 's The Citizen , beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3, rubles per year.

In the summer of , Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary.

In March , Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy. In his fifteen months with The Citizen , he had been taken to court twice: Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger , but the magazine refused.

As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia. Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh.

During his stay he began The Adolescent. He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there.

Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of , although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January.

The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother. It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works.

In early , Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary. The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics.

The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books. Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him.

With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa. In the summer of , Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again.

He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate.

When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul.

This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances. Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March he had four epileptic seizures.

Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary , he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood.

In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , from which he received an honorary certificate in February He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May.

The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works. Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg.

Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema , which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured.

On 3 February Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow.

On 8 June he delivered his speech , giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience.

His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him. Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoyevsky's Speech" in The Business , writing that "the language of Dostoyevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon.

He speaks with the tone of a prophet. He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners.

On 25 January , while searching for members of the terrorist organisation Narodnaya Volya "The People's Will" who would soon assassinate Tsar Alexander II, the Tsar's secret police executed a search warrant in the apartment of one of Dostoevsky's neighbours [ citation needed ].

On the following day, Dostoevsky suffered a pulmonary haemorrhage. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder.

A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew 3: And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: Do not restrain me!

It is unclear how many attended his funeral. According to one reporter, more than , mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40, and 50, His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early s.

He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale. Dostoevsky and Apollonia Polina Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of — Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship.

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more.

She doesn't deserve this love Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky , she would not live with him. Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends.

She wrote that he "became very attracted to me". Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November and January Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya , thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him.

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin 's History of the Russian State , which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life.

Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in , Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia.

While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution , a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history.

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people". He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes.

His ideal was a utopian , Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up If they were Christians they would settle everything".

In the s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo , a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism.

Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great.

In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation "the second stage in human history" had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God.

He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered. He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, ' Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous ' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like ' the struggle for survival ' ".

Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy. He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ.

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally". He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity.

For all that, to place politically Dostoevsky is not that simple, but: During the Russo-Turkish War , Dostoevsky asserted that war might be necessary if salvation were to be granted.

He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire.

Jewish characters in Dostoevsky's works have been described as displaying negative stereotypes. But as you say, its century existence proves that this tribe has exceptional vitality, which would not help, during the course of its history, taking the form of various Status in Statu Dostoevsky held negative views of the Ottoman Turks , dedicating multiple pages to them in his "Writer's Diary", professing the need to have no pity for Turks at war, no regrets in killing Turks and depopulating Istanbul of the Turkish population and shipping it off to Asia.

Dostoevsky was an Eastern Orthodox Christian, [] was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age. According to an officer at the military academy, Dostoevsky was profoundly religious, followed Orthodox practice, and regularly read the Gospels and Heinrich Zschokke 's Die Stunden der Andacht "Hours of Devotion" , which "preached a sentimental version of Christianity entirely free from dogmatic content and with a strong emphasis on giving Christian love a social application.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky revived his faith by looking frequently at the stars. Wrangel said that he was "rather pious, but did not often go to church, and disliked priests, especially the Siberian ones.

But he spoke about Christ ecstatically. Dostoevsky explored Islam , asking his brother to send him a copy of the Quran.

Two pilgrimages and two works by Dmitri Rostovsky , an archbishop who influenced Ukrainian and Russian literature by composing groundbreaking religious plays, strengthened his beliefs.

Dostoevsky's canon includes novels, novellas, novelettes , short stories, essays, pamphlets , limericks , epigrams and poems. He wrote more than letters, a dozen of which are lost.

Dostoevsky expressed religious, psychological and philosophical ideas in his writings. His works explore such themes as suicide, poverty, human manipulation, and morality.

Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights", [] and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent.

The influences of other writers, particularly evident in his early works, led to accusations of plagiarism , [] [] but his style gradually became more individual.

After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing. Elements of gothic fiction , [] romanticism , [] and satire [] are observable in some of his books.

He frequently used autobiographical or semi-autobiographical details. Dostoevsky's works were often called "philosophical", although he described himself as "weak in philosophy".

He may have been critical of rational and logical thinking because he was "more a sage and an artist than a strictly logical, consistent thinker".

An important stylistic element in Dostoevsky's writing is polyphony , the simultaneous presence of multiple narrative voices and perspectives.

Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony , developed by M. Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works.

Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature. His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary.

Bakhtin 's analysis of Dostoevsky came to be at the foundation of his theory of the novel. Bakhtin argued that Dostoevsky's use of multiple voices was a major advancement in the development of the novel as a genre.

In his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast , Ernest Hemingway stated that in Dostoevsky "there were things believable and not to be believed, but some so true that they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know".

It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence.

In an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoevsky was released in the Soviet Union, with a print run of 1, copies.

Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his novel The Master of Petersburg. The Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg was opened on 30 December , and the station of the same name in Moscow was opened on 19 June , the 75th anniversary of the Moscow Metro.

The Moscow station is decorated with murals by artist Ivan Nikolaev depicting scenes from Dostoevsky's works, such as controversial suicides.

Dostoevsky's work did not always gain a positive reception. Several critics, such as Nikolay Dobrolyubov , Ivan Bunin and Vladimir Nabokov , viewed his writing as excessively psychological and philosophical rather than artistic.

Others found fault with chaotic and disorganised plots, and others, like Turgenev, objected to "excessive psychologising" and too-detailed naturalism.

His style was deemed "prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish, balance, restraint and good taste". These characters were compared to those of Hoffmann, an author whom Dostoevsky admired.

Basing his estimation on stated criteria of enduring art and individual genius, Nabokov judges Dostoevsky "not a great writer, but rather a mediocre one—with flashes of excellent humour but, alas, with wastelands of literary platitudes in between".

Nabokov complains that the novels are peopled by "neurotics and lunatics" and states that Dostoevsky's characters do not develop: Dostoevsky's books have been translated into more than languages.

French, German and Italian translations usually came directly from the original, while English translations were second-hand and of poor quality.

Dostoevsky's works were interpreted in film and on stage in many different countries. Dostoevsky did not refuse permission, but he advised against it, as he believed that "each art corresponds to a series of poetic thoughts, so that one idea cannot be expressed in another non-corresponding form".

His extensive explanations in opposition to the transposition of his works into other media were groundbreaking in fidelity criticism. He thought that just one episode should be dramatised, or an idea should be taken and incorporated into a separate plot.

After the Russian Revolution , passages of Dostoevsky books were sometimes shortened, although only two books were censored: Demons [] and Diary of a Writer.

Dostoevsky's works of fiction include 15 novels and novellas, 17 short stories, and 5 translations. Many of his longer novels were first published in serialised form in literary magazines and journals.

The years given below indicate the year in which the novel's final part or first complete book edition was published. In English many of his novels and stories are known by different titles.

Poor Folk is an epistolary novel that describes the relationship between the small, elderly official Makar Devushkin and the young seamstress Varvara Dobroselova, remote relatives who write letters to each other.

Makar's tender, sentimental adoration for Varvara and her confident, warm friendship for him explain their evident preference for a simple life, although it keeps them in humiliating poverty.

An unscrupulous merchant finds the inexperienced girl and hires her as his housewife and guarantor. He sends her to a manor somewhere on a steppe, while Makar alleviates his misery and pain with alcohol.

The story focuses on poor people who struggle with their lack of self-esteem. Their misery leads to the loss of their inner freedom, to dependence on the social authorities, and to the extinction of their individuality.

Dostoevsky shows how poverty and dependence are indissolubly aligned with deflection and deformation of self-esteem, combining inward and outerward suffering.

Notes from Underground is split into two stylistically different parts, the first essay-like, the second in narrative style.

The protagonist and first-person narrator is an unnamed year-old civil servant known as The Underground Man. The only known facts about his situation are that he has quit the service, lives in a basement flat on the outskirts of Saint Petersburg and finances his livelihood from a modest inheritance.

The first part is a record of his thoughts about society and his character. He describes himself as vicious, squalid and ugly; the chief focuses of his polemic are the "modern human" and his vision of the world, which he attacks severely and cynically, and towards which he develops aggression and vengefulness.

He considers his own decline natural and necessary. Although he emphasises that he does not intend to publish his notes for the public, the narrator appeals repeatedly to an ill-described audience, whose questions he tries to address.

In the second part he describes scenes from his life that are responsible for his failure in personal and professional life and in his love life.

He tells of meeting old school friends, who are in secure positions and treat him with condescension.

His aggression turns inward on to himself and he tries to humiliate himself further. He presents himself as a possible saviour to the poor prostitute Lisa, advising her to reject self-reproach when she looks to him for hope.

Dostoevsky added a short commentary saying that although the storyline and characters are fictional, such things were inevitable in contemporary society.

The Underground Man was very influential on philosophers. His alienated existence from the mainstream influenced modernist literature. Crime and Punishment describes Rodion Raskolnikov 's life, from the murder of a pawnbroker and her sister, through spiritual regeneration with the help of Sonya a " hooker with a heart of gold " , to his sentence in Siberia.

Strakhov liked the novel, remarking that "Only Crime and Punishment was read in " and that Dostoevsky had managed to portray a Russian person aptly and realistically.

Grigory Eliseev of the radical magazine The Contemporary called the novel a "fantasy according to which the entire student body is accused without exception of attempting murder and robbery".

The novel's protagonist, the year-old Prince Myshkin , returns to Russia after several years at a Swiss sanatorium.

Scorned by Saint Petersburg society for his trusting nature and naivety, he finds himself at the center of a struggle between a beautiful kept woman, Nastasya, and a jealous but pretty young girl, Aglaya, both of whom win his affection.

Unfortunately, Myshkin's goodness precipitates disaster, leaving the impression that, in a world obsessed with money, power and sexual conquest, a sanatorium may be the only place for a saint.

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From dusk to dawn it was impossible not to behave like pigs Fleas, lice, and black beetles by the bushel Classified as "one of the most dangerous convicts", Dostoevsky had his hands and feet shackled until his release.

He was only permitted to read his New Testament Bible. In addition to his seizures, he had haemorrhoids , lost weight and was "burned by some fever, trembling and feeling too hot or too cold every night".

The smell of the privy pervaded the entire building, and the small bathroom had to suffice for more than people. Dostoevsky was occasionally sent to the military hospital, where he read newspapers and Dickens novels.

He was respected by most of the other prisoners, and despised by some because of his xenophobic statements. After his release on 14 February , Dostoevsky asked Mikhail to help him financially and to send him books by Vico , Guizot , Ranke , Hegel and Kant.

They both rented houses in the Cossack Garden outside Semipalatinsk. Wrangel remarked that Dostoevsky "looked morose. His sickly, pale face was covered with freckles, and his blond hair was cut short.

He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes. It was as if he were trying to look into my soul and discover what kind of man I was.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky tutored several schoolchildren and came into contact with upper-class families, including that of Lieutenant-Colonel Belikhov, who used to invite him to read passages from newspapers and magazines.

Alexander Isaev took a new post in Kuznetsk , where he died in August Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul. In Dostoevsky sent a letter through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his activity in several utopian circles.

As a result, he obtained the right to publish books and to marry, although he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life.

Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February , even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage.

Their family life was unhappy and she found it difficult to cope with his seizures. Describing their relationship, he wrote: They mostly lived apart.

In London, he met Herzen and visited the Crystal Palace. He recorded his impressions of those trips in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions , in which he criticised capitalism, social modernisation , materialism , Catholicism and Protestantism.

From August to October , Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe. He met his second love, Polina Suslova , in Paris and lost nearly all his money gambling in Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden.

In his wife Maria and brother Mikhail died, and Dostoevsky became the lone parent of his stepson Pasha and the sole supporter of his brother's family.

The failure of Epoch , the magazine he had founded with Mikhail after the suppression of Vremya , worsened his financial situation, although the continued help of his relatives and friends averted bankruptcy.

The first two parts of Crime and Punishment were published in January and February in the periodical The Russian Messenger , [70] attracting at least new subscribers to the magazine.

Dostoevsky returned to Saint Petersburg in mid-September and promised his editor, Fyodor Stellovsky , that he would complete The Gambler , a short novel focused on gambling addiction , by November, although he had not yet begun writing it.

One of Dostoevsky's friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary. Dostoevsky contacted stenographer Pavel Olkhin from Saint Petersburg, who recommended his pupil, the twenty-year-old Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina.

Her shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete The Gambler on 30 October, after 26 days' work. The strangeness of his eyes gave Dostoyevsky some mysterious appearance.

His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy. The 7, rubles he had earned from Crime and Punishment did not cover their debts, forcing Anna to sell her valuables.

On 14 April , they began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the money gained from the sale. They stayed in Berlin and visited the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden , where he sought inspiration for his writing.

They continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt , Darmstadt , Heidelberg and Karlsruhe. They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden , where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table.

In September , Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot , and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January Their first child, Sonya, had been conceived in Baden-Baden , and was born in Geneva on 5 March The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky "wept and sobbed like a woman in despair".

In April , Dostoevsky made a final visit to a gambling hall in Wiesbaden. Anna claimed that he stopped gambling after the birth of their second daughter, but this is a subject of debate.

After hearing news that the socialist revolutionary group "People's Vengeance" had murdered one of its own members, Ivan Ivanov, on 21 November , Dostoevsky began writing Demons.

During the trip, he burnt several manuscripts, including those of The Idiot , because he was concerned about potential problems with customs.

The family arrived in Saint Petersburg on 8 July, marking the end of a honeymoon originally planned for three months that had lasted over four years.

Back in Russia in July , the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions. Their son Fyodor was born on 16 July, and they moved to an apartment near the Institute of Technology soon after.

They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued.

Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments.

Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov.

Around early the family spent several months in Staraya Russa , a town known for its mineral spa. Dostoevsky's work was delayed when Anna's sister Maria Svatkovskaya died on 1 May , either from typhus or malaria , [86] and Anna developed an abscess on her throat.

The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January by the "Dostoyevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife.

Although they only accepted cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3, copies of Demons.

Anna managed the finances. Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky 's The Citizen , beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3, rubles per year.

In the summer of , Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary.

In March , Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy.

In his fifteen months with The Citizen , he had been taken to court twice: Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger , but the magazine refused.

As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia.

Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh. During his stay he began The Adolescent.

He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there.

Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of , although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January.

The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother. It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works.

In early , Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary. The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics.

The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books. Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him.

With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa. In the summer of , Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again.

He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate.

When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul.

This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances. Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March he had four epileptic seizures.

Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary , he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood.

In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , from which he received an honorary certificate in February He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May.

The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works. Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg.

Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema , which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured.

On 3 February Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow.

On 8 June he delivered his speech , giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience. His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him.

Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoyevsky's Speech" in The Business , writing that "the language of Dostoyevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon.

He speaks with the tone of a prophet. He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners.

On 25 January , while searching for members of the terrorist organisation Narodnaya Volya "The People's Will" who would soon assassinate Tsar Alexander II, the Tsar's secret police executed a search warrant in the apartment of one of Dostoevsky's neighbours [ citation needed ].

On the following day, Dostoevsky suffered a pulmonary haemorrhage. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder.

A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew 3: And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: Do not restrain me!

It is unclear how many attended his funeral. According to one reporter, more than , mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40, and 50, His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early s.

He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale. Dostoevsky and Apollonia Polina Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of — Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship.

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more.

She doesn't deserve this love Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky , she would not live with him. Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends.

She wrote that he "became very attracted to me". Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November and January Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya , thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him.

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin 's History of the Russian State , which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life.

Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in , Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia.

While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution , a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history.

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people".

He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes.

His ideal was a utopian , Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up If they were Christians they would settle everything".

In the s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo , a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism.

Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great.

In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation "the second stage in human history" had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God.

He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered. He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, ' Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous ' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like ' the struggle for survival ' ".

Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy.

He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ.

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally". He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity.

For all that, to place politically Dostoevsky is not that simple, but: During the Russo-Turkish War , Dostoevsky asserted that war might be necessary if salvation were to be granted.

He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire.

Jewish characters in Dostoevsky's works have been described as displaying negative stereotypes. But as you say, its century existence proves that this tribe has exceptional vitality, which would not help, during the course of its history, taking the form of various Status in Statu Dostoevsky held negative views of the Ottoman Turks , dedicating multiple pages to them in his "Writer's Diary", professing the need to have no pity for Turks at war, no regrets in killing Turks and depopulating Istanbul of the Turkish population and shipping it off to Asia.

Dostoevsky was an Eastern Orthodox Christian, [] was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age. According to an officer at the military academy, Dostoevsky was profoundly religious, followed Orthodox practice, and regularly read the Gospels and Heinrich Zschokke 's Die Stunden der Andacht "Hours of Devotion" , which "preached a sentimental version of Christianity entirely free from dogmatic content and with a strong emphasis on giving Christian love a social application.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky revived his faith by looking frequently at the stars. Wrangel said that he was "rather pious, but did not often go to church, and disliked priests, especially the Siberian ones.

But he spoke about Christ ecstatically. Dostoevsky explored Islam , asking his brother to send him a copy of the Quran.

Two pilgrimages and two works by Dmitri Rostovsky , an archbishop who influenced Ukrainian and Russian literature by composing groundbreaking religious plays, strengthened his beliefs.

Dostoevsky's canon includes novels, novellas, novelettes , short stories, essays, pamphlets , limericks , epigrams and poems.

He wrote more than letters, a dozen of which are lost. Dostoevsky expressed religious, psychological and philosophical ideas in his writings.

His works explore such themes as suicide, poverty, human manipulation, and morality. Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights", [] and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent.

The influences of other writers, particularly evident in his early works, led to accusations of plagiarism , [] [] but his style gradually became more individual.

After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing. Elements of gothic fiction , [] romanticism , [] and satire [] are observable in some of his books.

He frequently used autobiographical or semi-autobiographical details. Dostoevsky's works were often called "philosophical", although he described himself as "weak in philosophy".

He may have been critical of rational and logical thinking because he was "more a sage and an artist than a strictly logical, consistent thinker".

An important stylistic element in Dostoevsky's writing is polyphony , the simultaneous presence of multiple narrative voices and perspectives.

Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony , developed by M. Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works.

Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature.

His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary. Bakhtin 's analysis of Dostoevsky came to be at the foundation of his theory of the novel.

Bakhtin argued that Dostoevsky's use of multiple voices was a major advancement in the development of the novel as a genre.

In his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast , Ernest Hemingway stated that in Dostoevsky "there were things believable and not to be believed, but some so true that they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know".

It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence.

In an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoevsky was released in the Soviet Union, with a print run of 1, copies. Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his novel The Master of Petersburg.

The Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg was opened on 30 December , and the station of the same name in Moscow was opened on 19 June , the 75th anniversary of the Moscow Metro.

The Moscow station is decorated with murals by artist Ivan Nikolaev depicting scenes from Dostoevsky's works, such as controversial suicides.

Dostoevsky's work did not always gain a positive reception. Several critics, such as Nikolay Dobrolyubov , Ivan Bunin and Vladimir Nabokov , viewed his writing as excessively psychological and philosophical rather than artistic.

Others found fault with chaotic and disorganised plots, and others, like Turgenev, objected to "excessive psychologising" and too-detailed naturalism.

His style was deemed "prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish, balance, restraint and good taste". These characters were compared to those of Hoffmann, an author whom Dostoevsky admired.

Basing his estimation on stated criteria of enduring art and individual genius, Nabokov judges Dostoevsky "not a great writer, but rather a mediocre one—with flashes of excellent humour but, alas, with wastelands of literary platitudes in between".

Nabokov complains that the novels are peopled by "neurotics and lunatics" and states that Dostoevsky's characters do not develop: Dostoevsky's books have been translated into more than languages.

French, German and Italian translations usually came directly from the original, while English translations were second-hand and of poor quality.

Dostoevsky's works were interpreted in film and on stage in many different countries. Dostoevsky did not refuse permission, but he advised against it, as he believed that "each art corresponds to a series of poetic thoughts, so that one idea cannot be expressed in another non-corresponding form".

His extensive explanations in opposition to the transposition of his works into other media were groundbreaking in fidelity criticism.

He thought that just one episode should be dramatised, or an idea should be taken and incorporated into a separate plot. After the Russian Revolution , passages of Dostoevsky books were sometimes shortened, although only two books were censored: Demons [] and Diary of a Writer.

Dostoevsky's works of fiction include 15 novels and novellas, 17 short stories, and 5 translations. Many of his longer novels were first published in serialised form in literary magazines and journals.

The years given below indicate the year in which the novel's final part or first complete book edition was published.

In English many of his novels and stories are known by different titles. Poor Folk is an epistolary novel that describes the relationship between the small, elderly official Makar Devushkin and the young seamstress Varvara Dobroselova, remote relatives who write letters to each other.

Makar's tender, sentimental adoration for Varvara and her confident, warm friendship for him explain their evident preference for a simple life, although it keeps them in humiliating poverty.

An unscrupulous merchant finds the inexperienced girl and hires her as his housewife and guarantor. He sends her to a manor somewhere on a steppe, while Makar alleviates his misery and pain with alcohol.

The story focuses on poor people who struggle with their lack of self-esteem. Their misery leads to the loss of their inner freedom, to dependence on the social authorities, and to the extinction of their individuality.

Dostoevsky shows how poverty and dependence are indissolubly aligned with deflection and deformation of self-esteem, combining inward and outerward suffering.

Notes from Underground is split into two stylistically different parts, the first essay-like, the second in narrative style.

The protagonist and first-person narrator is an unnamed year-old civil servant known as The Underground Man. The only known facts about his situation are that he has quit the service, lives in a basement flat on the outskirts of Saint Petersburg and finances his livelihood from a modest inheritance.

The first part is a record of his thoughts about society and his character. He describes himself as vicious, squalid and ugly; the chief focuses of his polemic are the "modern human" and his vision of the world, which he attacks severely and cynically, and towards which he develops aggression and vengefulness.

He considers his own decline natural and necessary. Although he emphasises that he does not intend to publish his notes for the public, the narrator appeals repeatedly to an ill-described audience, whose questions he tries to address.

In the second part he describes scenes from his life that are responsible for his failure in personal and professional life and in his love life.

He tells of meeting old school friends, who are in secure positions and treat him with condescension. His aggression turns inward on to himself and he tries to humiliate himself further.

He presents himself as a possible saviour to the poor prostitute Lisa, advising her to reject self-reproach when she looks to him for hope.

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